Usually by age 12 most children have all their permament teeth. This is why we like to start our second phase around 10-12 years of age, so by the time their last permanent teeth erupts they are done with braces. Most children have braces around this age and besides the benefits of fitting in with their friends, they also have higher tolerance for discomfort.
Second phase usually lasts betwen 18-24 months, and after braces are removed they will be given retainers
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